Volume 08, issue 03
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ISSN: 2274-0422

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MorphoMuseuM Volume 08, issue 03
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Original article

The endocranial cast of a 10 ka intentionally deformed human cranium from China
Yin Qiyu Logo, Li Qiang Logo, Ma Ming Logo, Zhang Wei Logo and Ni Xijun Logo
Published online: 27/07/2022

Keywords: endocranial cast; intentional cranial deformation; Northeast China

References: 7

Cite this article: Yin Qiyu, Li Qiang, Ma Ming, Zhang Wei and Ni Xijun, 2022. The endocranial cast of a 10 ka intentionally deformed human cranium from China. MorphoMuseuM 8:169. doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.169

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This contribution contains the 3D model of an endocranial cast analyzed in “A 10 ka intentionally deformed human skull from Northeast Asia”. There are many studies on the morphological characteristics of intentional cranial deformation (ICD), but few related 3D models were published. Here, we present the surface model of an intentionally deformed 10 ka human cranium for further research on ICD practice. The 3D model of the endocranial cast of this ICD cranium was discovered near Harbin City, Province Heilongjiang, Northeast China. The fossil preserved only the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones. To complete the endocast model of the specimen, we printed a 3D model and used modeling clay to reconstruct the missing part based on the general form of the modern human endocast morphology.

Specimens and 3D Data

Homo sapiens IVPP-PA1616 View specimen


The frontal region of the endocast is flattened, probably formed by the constant pressure on the frontal bone during growth. There is a well-developed frontal crest on the endocranial surface. The endocast widens posteriorly from the frontal lobe. The widest point of the endocast is at the lateral border of the parietal lobe. The lower parietal areas display a marked lateral expansion. The overall shape of the endocast is asymmetrical, with the left side of the parietal lobe being more laterally expanded than the right side. Like the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe is also anteroposteriorly flattened.

Type: "3D_surfaces"

doi: 10.18563/m3.sf.972   state:published

Download 3D surface file


The original endocranial cast model (with texture) of IVPP-PA1616. It shows the original structures of the specimen, and was not altered in any way.

Type: "3D_surfaces"

doi: 10.18563/m3.sf.976   state:published

Download 3D surface file


Published in Volume 08, issue 03 (2022)


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